Guidelines: for Copying Books and Periodicals


The Minnesota State Colleges and Universities Office of the Chancellor has established the following guidelines based on the "Agreement on Guidelines for Classroom Copying in Not-For-Profit Educational Institutions With Respect to Books and Periodicals" developed by the National Association of College Stores, Inc., the Association of American Publishers, Inc., and the Association of American University Presses, Inc.

Single Copy for Faculty

A single copy of a work may be made of any of the following by or for a faculty member at his or her individual request for research or for teaching or preparing to teach a class:

  1. A chapter from a book;
  2. An article from a periodical or newspaper;
  3. A short story, short essay, or short poem, whether or not from a collective work; or
  4. A chart, graph, diagram, drawing, cartoon or picture from a book, periodical or newspaper.

Multiple Copies for Classroom Use

Multiple copies (not to exceed in any event more than one copy per pupil in a course) may be made by or for the faculty member giving the course for classroom use or discussion provided that:

  1. The copying meets the tests of brevity and spontaneity;
  2. The copying meets the cumulative effect test; and
  3. Each copy includes a notice of copyright.

Guidelines Definitions

Copying with Permission

Unless a work falls within one of the exceptions above, or the intended use of a work constitutes "fair use", no Minnesota State Colleges and Universities faculty member or staff person shall use or make photocopies and other reproductions of copyrighted works unless specific permission has been obtained from the copyright owner. If written permission from the copyright owner has been obtained, the faculty member or staff person may make such copies and reproductions and use the work in any manner authorized by the copyright owner.

For more information, please view Frequently Asked Questions-Permissions.

Other Restrictions

Other Restrictions: Notwithstanding any of the other "fair use" considerations, the following restrictions shall also apply to multiple copying:

  1. Consumable Works: There shall be no copying of or from works intended to be "consumable" in the course of study or of teaching. Consumable works include workbooks, exercises, standardized tests, test booklets, answer sheets, and like consumable materials.
  2. Compilations: Copying shall not be used to create or to replace or substitute for anthologies, compilations, or collective works. Such replacement or substitution may occur when the copies of various works or excerpts from such works are accumulated or are reproduced and used sparsely.
  3. Charges: No charge shall be made to the student beyond the actual cost of the copying.
  4. Book Purchase: The faculty member shall not utilize the copying to substitute for the purchase of books, publishers' reprints or periodicals.
  5. Direction: No person superior to the faculty member shall direct the faculty member to make copies of a copyrighted work.

Other General Requirements

The following general requirements also apply when copying or reproducing others' protected works:

  • Copying for Profit: No Minnesota State Colleges and Universities faculty member or staff person shall copy or reproduce any copyrighted work for use in a profit-seeking venture without the written authorization of the copyright owner and the campus Intellectual Property Coordinator.
  • Unpublished Works: Unpublished works are entitled to copyright protection and all of the provisions and procedures described in this primer apply to unpublished works.
  • Commercial Copying: All of the provisions and procedures described in this primer apply to copying and reproduction whether the facilities used for the copying belong to a Minnesota State Colleges and Universities college or university or to a commercial establishment.

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